STCV. Bibliography of the Hand Press Book

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Document Types

When adding keywords for document types, only the body of the work matters. Therefore, poems that appear in the preliminaries, do not mean that the code d917 for poetry will be added. On the other hand, quality is of no concern: even books of poetry of dubious quality will receive the code d917.

Almanacs and prognostications (d902)

Not every work that has 'almanac' in the title is automatically an almanac in the strict sense of the word. Nevertheless, all works claiming to be an almanac receive this code. Only the true almanacs, which appear annually, also receive the additional code d001 (general works). The 'feigned' almanacs are further categorised according to their actual contents.

Biographies (d904)

If the document type biography (d904) is used, then it is always combined with a content keyword d014-d030 (history of the specific country/region). For example, a seventeenth century biography of the saint Jan Berchmans will, besides d010 (church history and dogmatic history), also receive the codes d904 (biographies) and d018 (history: Belgium and Luxembourg).

Emblem books (d907)

All emblem books also receive the content keyword for plastic arts (d045) and the document type for poetry (d917).

Prayer books (d908)

Publications consisting almost entirely of prayers receive the code d908 for prayer books. This also holds true even when the publication is only a few pages long.

Song books (d912)

The code d912 for song books is only added to a work when the songs found in that work also contain tune indications. If a tune indication is absent, then this keyword is not used, with the exception of psalms. In other words, psalms and psalm adaptations always receive the keyword for song books.

Music books (d914)

This concerns music publications meant for use in performing music. These works always contain notes and often also text. They may be secular or religious and are typically motets, masses, litanies, madrigals, chorals, ... Secular popular song books and liturgical works without notation are not included here.


  • The title of the work is represented as clearly as possible. When necessary, the indication of the number of parts is included in the title (e.g. 'in cinque voci'). A potential indication of a specific part on a title page (e.g. 'bassvs') is not recorded in the title: we consider this to be a part indication.
  • The author functions are given as 'mus' and this both for the composer as for the librettist. Authors of accompanying texts receive the function 'aut' and illustrators 'ill'.

See also: Author function indications

  • Works with various parts are considered as one whole. If they are paginated, numbered and/or signed continuously, they are described as one single work (even though the parts are often bound separately). If they are numbered and/or signed separately, they are treated as a multi-volume work. The vocal parts follow the order set in music theory: S, A, T, B, 5, 6, (...), bc; meaning Soprano [= Canto], Alto, Tenor, Bass, fifth voice, sixth voice (...), basso continuo. For multi-volume works therefore 'S' equals volume 1#, 'A' volume 2#, and so on.
  • The described parts are mentioned in a general note, in the order of the title page. Known parts can be checked in the RISM (Répertoire internationale des sources musicaux). If RISM mentions more parts than the parts described, these are added to the bibliographical reference: "(mentions S A T B bc)". If all parts are described, the mention "(complete)" is added.
  • In the copy-specific information, the available parts are listed. For example: 'Parts: Altvs, bassvs, basso continvo'.

Bibliographical references

  • We refer to the RISM (Répertoire internationale des sources musicaux) as much as possible, and this to both the parts 'Einzeldrücke vor 1800' and 'Receuils imprimés'.
  • Further reference as much as possible is made to Goovaerts, Typographie musicale dans les Pays-Bas and to Huys, Catalogue des imprimés musicaux des 15e, 16e et 17e.
  • Further desirable references are those to the usual bibliographical reference works (Bib. catholica Neerlandica impressa, Backer-Sommervogel [S.J.], BL Low Countries, ...).
  • The authority records, as much as possible, include a reference link to Grove Music Online.

Subject headings

Typical keywords are:

d046 Performing arts and music
d912 Song books (if there is also text present)
t170 Music notation
d011 Christian doctrine (if it concerns religious music)
d913 Liturgical works (for masses and motets)

Government publications (d915)

This concerns texts issued by a secular or religious authority meant to inform the general public of a new law or rule. Collected law texts meant for study are thus not considered to belong in this category. Most often, we find issues from a central government, from the states or from the cities and towns.


The titles are shortened according to the general rules. Some important elements are retained as much as possible in the title field:

  • indication of the type of publication (ordonnantie, costumen, copie, placcaet, ...)
  • indication of the issuing authority ('gheaduiseert byde gheestelicke, en[de] Vier-Leden [...] van Vlaendren')
  • dates, especially those of issue ('Ghedaen te Bruessele, den 27sten. dach der maent van october, 1612')
  • geographic locations to which the publication pertains
  • subject of the publication ('op 't stuck van de jachte')

Terms of address, honorary titles and so on of issuing persons are omitted as much as possible. For example: 'les archiducqz nos princes souverains' is reduced to 'les archiducqz'.
See also: Title reproduction for government publications

Filing title

In general, this will be the most recent date found in the document. Only in very exceptional cases, when two (or more) independently ordinances are found in one printed document, multiple filing titles are recorded. If it concerns amplifications, additions, ... then the latest chronological date is always recorded. Other dates are mentioned in a general note. Beware: the latest date of issue is not always that which is mentioned on the title page!
See also: Choice of the filing title


  • If a sovereign ruler is named by name on the title page, this is entered as a reference term to the personal author and indicated in the description by the source 'title page'.
  • If a sovereign ruler is only named by function (the archdukes, the king, ...) then this function is added as a reference term to the personal author (the name of the ruler) and is entered with as source 'title page'.
  • If a corporate author is named on the title page, it is entered as a reference term with the source 'title page'.

Corporate authors may appear as authors alongside rulers!

Various editions

Many ordinances may be found in various editions. If the imprint is different (different printers and/or year), there is no problem of course. Often, however, different editions have the same imprint either because there are textual differences (different addressee), because there was an immediate second impression/edition printed, or the original imprint was copied word for word in a later reprint. Strictly speaking, this last case is an example of a copy imprint but if this is not explicitly indicated as such in the document, it is not recorded in the description as such.

The imprint mentioned on the title page is always the imprint that is recorded first in the description. Only if there is absolute certainty about the identity of a printer responsible for the potential reprint, are they recorded in the imprint field. If there is doubt, this (and the printer) is mentioned in a general note but no extra imprint field is added to the description.

Variant editions are mentioned as much as possible in a general note: "There is another edition of the same year (STCV ...)" (regardless of whether this edition was actually printed in another year!). Additional indications may be useful in tracking down the differences between the variants quickly:

The present copy has '...' (spelling variant in the title).

The present copy has the privilege, date ..., on f. ...

The present copy has the coat of arms supported by blind/sighted justice.

Obviously the fingerprint remains the first indication to recognise variant editions.

Bibliographical references

Since there are so many different editions that cannot always be distinguished from each other, we may make simple references to reference works without distinguishing between editions, unless the reference works themselves make the distinction. It is possible to add '... (another edition)'. As much as possible, we try to refer to standard works.

Abbreviation Short Title
knuttel Knuttel
wulp Wulp, J.K. van der. Tractaten, pamfletten, enz.
muller Muller, F. Bib. van Nederlandsche pamfletten
bb Bib. Belgica (1964-1970 éd.)
desmaele Desmaele B. Ordonnances 1621-1633 [thesis Université de Mons]
simoni BL Low Countries, 1601-1621
stcfrench BM STC French 1601-1700

Subject headings

Typical keywords are:

d076 Public administration (compulsory)
d915 Government publications (compulsory)
t011 Coat of arms on the title page/in the prelims
t080 Printer's device

Then there is also content keyword for the subject of the ordinance, for example:

d068 Sports and games (for gambling, hunting, poaching, ...)
d073 Economics (for mint ordinances (coins), trade, toll collection, ...)
d077 Political science (for war declarations and peace treaties, military ordinances, ...)

Books of plates (d916)

Works published because of their illustrations, receive the code d916. This is not true for atlases: they receive the code d903.

Poetry (d917)

  • The document type keyword for poetry ('everything in verse') is added when a substantial part of the publication was written in verse, regardless of whether it rhymes or not. This is not an indication of genre. The text itself need not be presented as a literary form (poem, song, etc.). For example, Den crvys-wech Christ. [...] Elcke plaetse met eene meditatie, ende een deuoot ghebedt, a seventeenth century prayer book containing numerous prayers set in verse, will receive the keywords d011 (Christian doctrine), d908 (prayer book) and d917 (poetry).
  • Emblem books always receive, beside the content keyword d045 (particular arts: plastic arts), the document type keyword d917 (poetry).
  • Plays set in verse receive the code d917 as well as the content keyword d046 (performing arts and music).

Period documents (d922)

  • Official publications of judicial decrees, court orders, descriptions of crimes, trials and executions always receive the code d922 for period documents.
  • Petitions to a government accompanied by a reaction from the government receive, on the one hand, the keywords for the petition (e.g. d018 for history of Belgium and Luxembourg and d922 for period documents) and on the other the keyword for government publication.
  • Occasional writings and eulogies concerning prominent public figures are treated as period documents.